Wednesday, August 16, 2006

Getting the Struts source code

If you want the Struts source code for
some reason, go to
struts/acquiring.html. First click the
Prerequisites link in the Acquiring Struts section
to make sure that you have all the prerequisite
software. Then return to the Acquiring Struts
section and click the Struts Source Code
Distribution link to get the source code.
No prerequisites are required for the binary version
if you’re using a Java JRE version 1.4 or
Sun Microsystems provides the JXML (Java
XML) reference (example) implementation at, or you can get the
Xerces XML parser at
Put the parser into the Struts/lib directory after
installing Struts,. The simplest route is to use the
latest version of Java (SDK 1.4.2 as of this writing),
as explained in the “Downloading and
better. If you intend to use a Java JRE version
earlier than 1.4, you need to get an XML parser.
installing Java” section, earlier in this chapter.

Understanding the Model-View-Controller Design

Although Struts is not a complete application, it can be customized through
extension to satisfy your programming needs. By using Struts, you can save
hundreds, if not thousands, of hours of programming time and be confident
that the underlying foundation is efficient, robust, and pretty much bug-free.
When implemented properly, Struts is definitely a boon.
An application framework is a skeleton of an application that can be customized
by the application developer. Struts is an application framework that
unifies the interaction of the various components of a J2EE Web application —
namely Servlets, JSP pages, JavaBeans, and business logic — into one consistent
whole. Struts provides this unification by implementing the Model-View-
Controller (MVC) design pattern. Struts provides an implementation of the
MVC design pattern for Web applications. To understand why this is so important,
you need to see why MVC is such a useful architecture when dealing with
user interactions.
The MVC pattern is the grand-daddy of object-orientated design patterns.
Originally used to build user interfaces (UI) in Smalltalk-80, an early objectoriented
programming system, it has proved useful everywhere UI’s are present.
The MVC pattern separates responsibilities into three layers of
- Model: The data and business logic
- View: The presentation
- Controller: The flow control
Each of these layers is loosely coupled to provide maximum flexibility with
minimum effect on the other layers.

Where does Jakarta Struts come from?

Chapter 1: Starting with the Basics 11
Where does Jakarta Struts come from?
To understand what Jakarta Struts is all about, you need to know something about the opensource
movement that is its heritage. Opensource
generally refers to software that the
distributor provides at no cost to the user and
that includes both the binary (compiled) code
and the source code.
cific license, and the license can vary from one
GNU ( license provides that you
must always include the source code if you
redistribute the software of the application,
whether or not you have made modifications
to the original source code. The Apache
( license does not require
you to provide the source code when you redistribute
one of their applications. So opensource
software licenses vary — check the
license to be sure. For more information on
open-source software, take a look at www.
Jakarta is one of many projects under the auspices
of the Apache Software Foundation (ASF)
(, formerly known as the
Apache Group. The Apache Group was formed
in 1995 by a number of individuals who worked
together to create one of the most successful
examples of an open-source project, the
1999, the Apache Group became the non-profit
Apache Software Foundation, to better provide
support for its members and a legal presence to
protect its resources.
for other related open-source applications.
Currently 16 software projects are supported by
software projects is a bit of a misnomer
because many of these projects have
numerous subprojects that are really independent
projects in themselves. Creativity is unlimited,
so the ideas keep coming!
Jakarta ( is one of the
Software Foundation, charged with the crePlatform,
based on software licensed to the
Foundation, for distribution at no charge to the
public.” Struts is one of the 22 subprojects cursubproject.
Struts was created by Craig R. McClanahan and
employee of Sun Microsystems and is the prican
read about Craig and many other Struts
contributors at
struts/volunteers.html. The Struts 1.0
release had 17 contributors. With release 1.1
that number has jumped to 50. The project was
named Struts as a reference to the architectural
structures in buildings and homes that provide
the internal support. The present version of
Struts is 1.1.
To understand what Jakarta Struts is all about,
You obtain open-source software under a spesoftware
provider to another. For example, the
Apache Web Server (used by 64% of the Web
sites on the Internet as of October, 2003). In
As the popularity of Apache grew, so did ideas
ASF. Actually,
principal 16 ASF projects. To quote from their
Web site, “Jakarta is a Project of the Apache
ation and maintenance of commercial-quality,
open-source, server-side solutions for the Java
rently listed. Yes, this entire book is about one
donated to ASF in May, 2000. Craig is an
mary developer of both Struts and Tomcat 4. You
A Web container is a program that manages the components of a Web application,
in particular JSP pages and Java Servlets. A Web container provides a
number of services, such ass

Monday, August 07, 2006


This is just a test....

Hello World...

Welcome Java Programmers!!!!